Royal Enfield The Indian Automobile Warrior
Royal Enfield Limited of Redditch, Worcestershire sold motorcycles, bicycles, lawnmowers and stationary engines which they had manufactured. Enfield Cycle Company also used the brand name Enfield without Royal.
The first Royal Enfield motorcycle was built in 1901. The Enfield Cycle Company is responsible for the design and original production of the Royal Enfield Bullet, the longest-lived motorcycle design in history
George Townsend set up a business in 1851 in Redditch making sewing needles. In 1882 his son, also named George, started making components for cycle manufacturers including saddles and forks. By 1886 complete bicycles were being sold under the names Townsend and Ecossais. This business suffered a financial collapse in 1891. Albert Eadie, sales manager of Birmingham’s Perry & Co Ltd, pen makers who had begun to supply components for cycles, and Robert Walker Smith, an engineer from D. Rudge & Co were chosen by Townsend’s bankers to run the business. Then, in 1892, the firm was re-incorporated and named Eadie Manufacturing Company Limited; it was based in Snow Hill, Birmingham. Later, in 1907, after serious losses from their newly floated Enfield Autocar business, Eadie Manufacturing and its pedal-cycle component business was absorbed by BSA. Years later, the BSA chairman was to tell shareholders that the acquisition had “done wonders for the cycle department”. Eadie still retained a separate identity when Raleigh bought BSA’s cycle interests in 1957
Enfield diversified into motor cycles, 1901 and motor cars, 1902. The motor department was put into a separate subsidiary, Enfield Autocar Company Limited incorporated in 1906 and established in new works at Hunt End, Redditch.However Enfield Autocar after just 19 months reported a substantial loss and, aside from Eadie himself, shareholders were unwilling to provide more capital so in early 1907 Eadie sold his control of Eadie Manufacturing to BSA. Albert Eadie and Robert Walker Smith had been appointed directors of BSA before the proposed sale haS been put to shareholders. The new combined BSA and Eadie business manufactured “military and sporting rifles, (pedal) cycle and cycle components, motor-cars etc.
The 250cc class was important in the UK as it was the largest engine which a ‘learner’ could ride without passing a test. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Royal Enfield produced a number of 250 cc machines, including a racer, the ‘GP’ and a Scrambler, the ‘Moto-X’, which used a modified Crusader frame, leading link forks and a Villiers Starmaker engine.The Clipper was a base-model tourer with the biggest-seller being the Crusader, a 248 cc pushrod OHV single producing 18 bhp
|Quadricycle||1898||Prototype. Production of De Dion powered tricycles and quadricycles started in 1899.|
|First Motorcycle||MAG or JAP||1901||Used Swiss MAG or British J.A.P. engine|
|Model 180||770 cc||With V-twin JAP engine|
|Model A||225 cc||1930||Two-stroke single|
|Model B||225 cc||1930||Side-valve single|
|Model C, F, G||346 cc||1930||Side-valve single|
|Model CO||346 cc||1930||Overhead-valve single|
|Model D, H, HA||488 cc||1930||Side-valve single|
|Model E, J, JA||488 cc||1930||Overhead-valve single|
|Model K||976 cc||1930||Side-valve V- twin|
|Model KX||1,140 cc||1937||Side-valve V- twin|
|Bullet||346 cc||1948||Overhead-valve single with alloy head was derived from Model G. First use of now-famous Bullet name.|
|WD/RE||125 cc||Known as the “Flying Flea”. Two-stroke single based on DKW RT. Used extensively in WW2 to jump with parachutes.
Royal Enfield Ensign, A two stroke of 148cc displacement and spring frame rear suspension, telescopic front forks, introduced in 1952/3.
|WD/D||246 cc||Side-valve single
Widely used for message delivery.
|WD/C||346 cc||Side-valve single.
Based on the pre-war 350 cc side-valve bike, this model was supplied in large numbers to various military services and countries around the world, from 1939 to 1941. Post-war, many reconditioned bikes appeared on the civilian market.
|WD/CO||346 cc||Overhead-valve single
A request by the Army to Royal Enfields for more power saw the overhead Model WD/CO appear, to replace the WD/C Model. This model was supplied in very large numbers 1941–44 to many services and countries around the world. Post-war, many reconditioned bikes appeared on the civilian market.
|WD/G||346 cc||Overhead-valve single
Supplied in small numbers.
|WD/L||570 cc||Side-valve single
Supplied in small numbers.
|WD/J2||499 cc||Overhead-valve single
Supplied in small numbers.
|Royal Enfield Model CO 350||350 cc ohv single||1946–1947||A rigid-framed girder-fork wartime model (WD/CO), put back into production briefly post-war to fill a need for transport and all the machinery and a lot of parts were still available for this model.|
|Royal Enfield Model G 350||350 cc ohv single||1946–1954||A rigid framed model with the new telescopic front fork, as modest priced basic transport it sold well.|
|Royal Enfield Model J 500||500 cc ohv single||1946–1947||A rigid framed telescopic fork model, it offered a bigger engine than the almost identical looking Model G 350 cc.|
|Royal Enfield Model J2 500||500 cc ohv single twin port||1947–1954||A rigid framed telescopic fork model, it offered a flashy twinport exhaust system – twin exhaust pipes one each side of the bike.|
|500 Twin||500 cc OHV twin||1948-1958||The first post-war twin cylinder in a swingarm frame with telescopic forks. It was simply called ‘500 Twin’ and most non-engine parts were shared with the new Bullet. Its factory photograph is often mistakenly called ‘Bullet’ on various websites.|
|Bullet 350||350 cc single||ISDT winner, and very widely used roadbike with swingarm rear suspension.
Amongst the first to be so equipped. (See main article Royal Enfield Bullet.)
|Bullet 500||500 cc single||1953–1962|
|Fury||500 cc/600 cc single||1958–1963||Competition model built for US flat track competition market; it was essentially a Bullet 500 bottom end with a substantially larger cylinder head with integrated rocker box, larger ports and valves. The bike was nicknamed “Big Head”. Came with 1.5″ Amal GP carburetor and Lucas Racing Magneto. 193 ever made. One 600 cc prototype was made and sold per factory records. A “Big Head” bullet was sold in the UK concurrently for the civilian market with a smaller inlet valve and Amal Monobloc carburetor.|
|Meteor Minor||500 cc twin||1958–1963||Follow up of the 500 Twin. Parallel twin housed in the same swing arm frame as the singles. 1960 onwards as Sports and de Luxe model.|
|Super Meteor||700 cc twin||1953–1962||40 bhp touring model|
|Constellation||700 cc twin||1958-1963||–||700 Interceptor||700 cc twin||1960||163 ever made; all were exported to North America; Engine code starts with VAX.|
|750 Interceptor||736 cc twin||1962–1970||Series 1, Series 1A, Series 2 (with wet sump lubrication)|
Indian-branded Royal Enfields (sold in USA from 1955 to 1960)
Indian branded motorcycles included:
|Indian Chief||700 cc twin||1958–1961||Longest wheelbase of any post-war Royal Enfield; single Monobloc carb; distributor ignition; 16″ wheels; Albion heavy-duty gearbox with AM prefix. Earlier bikes had Super Meteor spec Engine; but later bikes came with Constellation spec engine. This is the only bike that was not replaced with an AMC model when AMC took over Indian in 1960.|
|Indian Trailblazer||700 cc twin||1955–1959||19″ wheels. Single carb and dual carb, valanced fenders. Engine had Super Meteor spec.|
|Apache||700 cc twin||1957–1959||Constellation spec engine. Single TT carb on most models. Slim alloy fenders. Quick detach headlights. Sportiest of all Enfield based Indians.|
|Tomahawk||500 cc twin||1955–1959||19″ wheels, Meteor Minor engine specs. Early casquette debuted in 1954. Earlier bikes had the pre-1955 frame.|
|Woodsman||500 cc single||1955–1959||Same as 500 cc Bullet with high pipes and big 5″ speedo. Sold as a competition bike.|
|Westerner||500 cc single||1957–1958||Competition version of the Woodsman with low open pipes, Amal TT carburetor and racing magneto, no lights and speedometer. Very few were made.|
|Patrol Car||346 cc single||1957–1959||3-speed gearbox with provision for a reverse gear. Hand shifter. Some models had 16-inch tires all around and some others had 19-inch front and 16-inch rear.|
|Fire Arrow & Hounds Arrow||248 cc single||1957–1959||Earlier models were semi-unit Clipper engine; later models had 248 cc unit single engine.|
|Lance Arrow||148 cc single||1957–1959||Two-stroke engine. Most were painted yellow from the factory. Not very many were imported.|
Enfield India Ltd. 1955 onwards
Enfield India was renamed to Royal Enfield Motors in 1995.
|Ensign||150 cc||1956–1962||150 cc two-stroke engine|
|Sherpa/Crusader||175 cc||1963–1980||Motorcycle with a two-stroke 175 cc Villiers engine. Sherpa was rechristened Crusader after a restyling job in 1970.|
|Mini Bullet||200 cc||1980–1983||Motorcycle with an enlarged 200 cc Crusader engine. It was a favorite amongst racing enthusiasts in India.|
|Fantabulus||175 cc||1962–197?||Scooter with a two-stroke 173 cc Villiers engine and heel/toe gearshift. First Indian made bi-wheeler to have an electric starter. It used a Dynastart system.|
|Fury||163 cc||1988–1995?||It was a licensed copy of the Zundapp KS 175. It was the first motorcycle in India to sport a disc brake. Wheels were cast alloy and front end sported 35 mm Paioli forks. Later model was called Grand Prix. Rare DW175 model came with drum brakes, both front and back.|
|Explorer||50 cc||198?–199?||Air-cooled version of the Zundapp KS50 with 3-speed gearbox|
|Silver Plus||50 cc||198?–199?||Step thru moped with kick start and hand gear shift. Based on Zundapp ZS/ZX 50 models.|
|MOFA||22 cc||198?–199?||Mini moped designed by Morbidelli of Italy to manufacture in India. The 22 cc two-stroke engine had a centrifugal clutch and the fuel was carried in the frame down tube.|
|Lightning||535 cc||198?–2003||Cruiser style motorcycle with 535 cc (87 mm bore) based on Fritz Egli tuned Bullets. Hi-volume oil pumps, 4-speed gearbox and two tone paint. Indian Market only model. Also available with electric start. A rare 350 cc model was also sold for some time.|
|Diesel/Taurus||325 cc||1993–2001||The only diesel motorcycle to enter mass production, with a 325 cc 6.5 bhp Lombardini diesel engine, and 3.5 hp version, the gearbox was reinforced to withstand increased torque associated with a diesel engine. The Taurus came with heavy-duty luggage rack for vending jobs, but the top speed was limited to roughly 80 km/h by its lack of power.|
|Machismo||346 cc/499 cc||198?–2009||Introduced with the classic 350 cc Bullet engine with 4-speed gearbox; it later attained the AVL lean burn engine and eventually a 5-speed gearbox. Later, LB500 model came with the 500 cc AVL lean burn engine. Sheet metal and trim had slight variations depending on the year. Indian market only model.|
|Bullet 350||346 cc||1955–present||Originally started manufacturing in 1955 with 350 cc iron-barrel engine and 4-speed Albion gearbox. Bullet Continental sold in USA in 1990s with left shift 4-speed gearbox. Attained the Unit Construction Engine in May 2010. Many submodels introduced during its lifespan like Bullet Superstar. In 2010, the classic iron-barrel engine was replaced with the 350 cc UCE engine. Bullet 350 is the cheapest of all the Royal Enfield models and is devoid of an electric starter, front disc brake, and gas filled shocks. Only available in black with gold pinstripes.|
|Bullet 500||499 cc||1990–present||Historically sold worldwide in different variations with both 4-speed and 5-speed gearboxes (The 5-speed iron-barrel engine model was sold under the name Sixty-5). In 2009 iron-barrel engine production came to an end but the B5 export model, with a fuel-injected UCE engine, is sold as the Bullet 500 in almost all international markets. It is currently available in forest green and glossy black colour schemes, and features unique silver petrol tank decorations.|
|Electra||346/499 cc||2001–present||Indian market only model with 346 cc classic engine. 4-speed or 5-speed gearbox. Later models with electric start and TCI ignition. Attained the UCE engine in 2010 and is now known as Electra Twinspark. Was available on the export market with a classic carburettor-equipped 500cc engine as the Electra X prior to Euro-4 legislation halting its production in 2009.|
|Electra-X||499 cc||200?–present||Export-only model with 500 cc AVL lean-burning engine and 5-speed gearbox. Equipped with the Euro-4 compliant UCE engine in 2009. A chrome edition was available from 2010-2013, called the G5 Deluxe, which was equipped with fuel injection and a front disc brake. Previously available in several specifications, such as a flat-track style version of the Electra X, sold exclusively in the UK by importer Watsonian Squire between 2011 and 2013. The G5 was sold alongside the C5 Chrome, and has been largely superseded by the B5, often referred to as the “Bullet 500” in the export market.|
|Thunderbird 350||346 cc||2002–present||Cruiser style motorcycle that was a big hit to command almost half the domestic sales. Attained Euro-4 compliant Unit Construction Engine(UCE) in 2008 and was rechristened Thunderbird Twinspark. In 2013 it underwent a major facelift introducing digital speedometer and fuel gauge along with projector headlamps. Indian Market only model.|
|Classic 500||499 cc||2010–present||With Euro-4 compliant Unit Construction engine. Both Indian and International markets. Sold under the model name C5 in most International markets. Features include fuel injection, solo seat and 18-inch rear wheel. Several limited edition and special colour schemes have been available for this model at various times, notably the current-model C5 Chrome, military tan and green, as well as limited-edition Squadron camouflage paint schemes.|
|Classic 350||346 cc||2010–present||Recently made available in the export market with a Euro-4 compliant Unit Construction engine. Equipped with UCAL\BS29 carburettor and twinspark ignition. Shares styling with the Classic 500 series of motorbikes.|
|Thunderbird 500||499 cc||2013–present||500 cc variant of the Thunderbird. Fuel injection, digital console, electronic fuel gauge, projector headlamps and 18-inch wheels. Currently the flagship model of Royal Enfield India.|
|Thunderbird 350||346 cc||2013–present||350 cc variant of the Thunderbird. Digital console, electronic fuel gauge, projector headlamps and 18-inch wheels. Currently the flagship model of Royal Enfield India.|
|Continental GT||535 cc||2014–present||Features include a fuel-injected 500cc unit-construction engine which has been redesigned and bored out to 535cc, and cafe racerstyling inspired by the historic 250cc Royal Enfield Continental, which was produced between 1963 and 1968. Equipped with Brembo 300 mm front disc brake and Pirelli Sports Demon tyres in factory configuration, it represents a step up for Royal Enfield’s brand integration and production quality. The double cradle frame developed by Harris Performance UK, and Paioli gas-charged shock absorbers with adjustable preload contribute to a more stable ride. Features a semi-digital console and electronic fuel gauge.|
|Himalayan||411 cc||2016–present||Entry level dual-purpose adventure bike. All-new engine, 411 cc, referred to as the long-stroke “LS410”. 5-speed constant mesh transmission. Front/rear disc brakes.|